Acne is a common skin condition that can affect both teenagers and adults. In men and women alike it is typically triggered by excess sebum. Testosterone enters the sebaceous glands and stimulates sebum production. In men testosterone originates in the male sexual organs, while in women it is produced in the ovaries and adrenal glands.

There are
four main factors that contribute to acne:

Cell Accumulation and 3) Bacteria

When acne is present,

There are
fewer lamellar granules in the Stratum Granulosum of acneic skin which contain
the desquamation enzymes and lipids that comprise the barrier layer in the
intercellular spaces, this could account for the accumulation of cells in the
follicle canal.

Acneic skin
is more permeable around the sebaceous gland and follicle, which may lead to
leakage and inflammation into surrounding tissue. Studies have shown that
linoleic acid, an essential fatty acid that is a component of the barrier lipid
layer, is indeed deficient in acneic clients.

The bacteria
in the follicle excrete a lipase enzyme to break down the sebum triglycerides
into fatty acids and glycerol. The sebum is used as a food source and the free
fatty acids are merely waste products that irritate the lining of the follicle.
At this point, the disease may result in non-inflammatory lesions and simply
produce closed commedones (whiteheads) which may turn into open commedones
(blackheads) and expel their contents.


lesions may also result, whereby the follicle wall ruptures forming a papule:

matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs) enzymes are stimulated to help repair the
damaged tissue and white blood cells invade the area: this is when inflammation
sets in.

have discovered that specific ingredients can inhibit the lipase enzyme in the
bacteria that is responsible for breaking down sebum triglycerides into free
fatty acids that are known to cause irritation in the skin. Controlling the
breakdown of triglycerides helps minimize inflammation due to the free fatty
acids; and since the fatty acids are often attacked by free radicals leading to
additional irritation, if we can inhibit the formation of the free fatty acids
then we can effectively prevent inflammation before it occurs.

What can be done to treat the
affected follicles?

2.) Cell Accumulation and Bacteria

3.) Inflammation

What can be done to treat the
affected follicles?

Acne is a common problem. It can cause severe embarrassment,
but treatment is available, and it is effective in many cases.Call Nell Laser Clinic at 416-228-0011 to book a complementary
consultation session for acne and acne scars treatments.