Wrinkles, altered pigmentation (age spots), loss of tone all associated with skin aging. Age -related skin changes are the result of genetically -programmed changes (intrinsic factors) and environmental wear and tear on skin (extrinsic factors). Ultraviolet has cases majority of structural changes to the skin. These changes are chemical reactions that occur within the skin and include:

Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), also known as free radicals; from stable molecules Free radicals attack lipids membranes and DNA in the nucleus in an attempt to steal an electron to stabilize themselves. When this happenings they form other stable molecules. The result of this process causes damage to the cell which leads to inflammation, cross linking of collagen and disease.

Wrinkles occur as a result of a reduction in muscle mass and skin thickness, Cross-linking of collagen and elastin and dehydration of Stratum Cornium ( the outer most layer of the skin).

Skin discoloration (age spots) changing in skin color are often associated with aging. Hyper pigmentation or dark spot is the result of cumulative UV exposure that activate melanocyte or melamine cell. This is often associated with hypo pigmentation or reduction in number of melanocytes. There is a decline of 6-8% per decade after age 30 which accounts for the lighter skin color. This is not only leads to the obvious reduction in melanin, but also accounts for a diminished protective capacity against UV exposure. along with the decline in melnocytes, there is a decline in the other dendric cell of the epidermis ( the langerhans cells) which results in a diminished immune response for the skin.

Breakdown of Collagen and Elastin the majority of age-dependent changes ( wrinkles& sagging) that occur in our skin happen result of in the dermis, which can lose from 20-80% of its thickness during the aging process. this is the result of changes in the fibroblasts, the cells responsible for collagen , elastin and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) biosynthesis.

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